The Oxford Millenary Pageant
Place: Worcester College Gardens (Oxford) (Oxford, Oxfordshire, England)
Number of performances: 4
11–13 July 1912
Thursday 11th: 1 performance; Friday 12th: 1 performance; Saturday 13th: 2 performances
Name of pageant master and other named staff
- Pageant Master: Adams, W. Bridges
- Musical Director: Mr H.B. Wilsdon
- Chairman of the Episodes Committee: Professor C. Oman
- Secretaries of Committee: Rev. Ernest F. Smith; Mr R. Middleton Hill
- Editorial Sub-Committee: Professor C. Oman; Mr F. Madan
Names of executive committee or equivalent
Names of script-writer(s) and other credited author(s)
- Warren, T. Herbert
- Housman, Laurence
- Oman, Charles
- Quiller-Couch, Arthur
- Binyon, Laurence
- Godley, A.D.
- Skrine, J.H.
- T.H. Warren, President of Magdalen College and Professor of Poetry (Prologue).
- Laurence Housman (Episode I).
- C. Oman, Chichele Professor of Modern History (Episode II).
- Sir A.T. Quiller-Couch (Episode III).
- Laurence Binyon (Episode IV).
- A.D. Godley, Public Orator of the University (Episode V).
- Rev. John H. Skrine (Episode VI).
Names of composers
Numbers of performers
Object of any funds raised
Linked occasion1000 years since the first mention of Oxford in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles
- Grandstand: Not Known
- Grandstand capacity: n/a
- Total audience: n/a
Prices of admission and seats: highest–lowest
- Pageant church service in the Cathedral (11 July). Canon Holland read the lesson and the Dean of Christ Church preached a sermon.
- Luncheon given by the Mayor and the General Consultative Committee of Citizens and members of the University appointed to carry out the celebration (11 July). Speeches by Mayor, the Vice-Chancellor, and Sir William Anson.
- A garden party was held in the afternoon in New College Gardens (11 July). Professor Oman delivered an oration ‘The Origins of Oxford.’
- Historical Exhibition at Assembly Rooms in the Town Hall for several weeks plus: see Oxford City Millenary Exhibition 1912: Catalogue of a Loan Collection of Antiquities, Pictures, Books, Manuscripts, Etc. Illustrating the History and Topography of the City of Oxford (Oxford, 1912).
- Associated lecture series:
- ‘Early History of the City to the Norman Conquest’ by Mr Falconer Madan (6 May).
- ‘The City and the University in the Middle Ages’ by Mr A.L. Smith (13 May).
- ‘Industrial and Municipal Oxford in the Middle Ages’ by the Rev. H.E. Salter (20 May).
- ‘Oxford During the Civil War’ by Mr J.A.R. Marriott (3 June).
- ‘Oxford in the Eighteenth Century,’ by Mr A.D. Godley (10 June).
- ‘A Walk through Ancient Oxford’ by the Rev. H.E. Salter (17 June).
- A special illustrated lecture for school children, dealing with the Oxford historical pageant of 1907, given by Mr A.F. Kerry, the head master of the City Technical School. (2 July ).
Father Thames emerges from the water accompanied by his three daughters: Cherwell, with her little child, Ray; Evenlode; and Windrush. All are crowned with a range of flowers. Father Thames addresses the audience gathered ‘By this Fair Mount’. He tells of a thousand years ago, when Oxford was ‘Not yet the stately city of long renown’. He describes how the pageant will allow the story of this time to be revealed, and to ‘make again, all is to be, A thousand years of glorious history.’ He then briefly gives an overview, in prose, of the episodes. Finally he bids farewell.
Episode I. St. Frideswide, c. AD 727. Oxford’s First Legend
This episode describes the successful attempt of Frideswide, who aspired to monastic life from a very young age, to evade the marriage propositions of an importunate Mercian Prince, Algar. The scene opens on a green lawn by the side of the Thames. A group of fishermen are surprised by the arrival, by boat, of St. Frideswide with her old servitor and several of her maidens. Tired from fasting and flight, her maids help her to the shore, as she instructs one of them to keep watch at the riverbank. The fishermen let Frideswide and her maidens hide in their hut, as the servitor explains to one of the fishermen about the desires and pursuit of Algar. All of a sudden the watchwoman comes rushing back, warning that Algar was approaching with men in a warship. After he lands he seizes Frideswide’s followers, before his men take her and her maidens from the hut. Algar triumphantly declares his victory and the fate of Frideswide, telling her to ‘yield thyself and come!’ Frideswide calls to the heavens for help, at which point thunder is heard and a flash of light falls upon Algar’s face; he exclaims in fear that his sight has been taken. When Algar calls out for help all draw back, except for Frideswide, who approaches Algar, and takes his hand, leading him to penitently kneel at her feet in gratitude. She prays again and Algar’s sight is restored. Frideswide asks that, as ‘the first-fruits of humility’, he form a nunnery. Algar offers his jewels and crown, before leaving with his men. Fridewide declares that here shall sprout a tree of life, and a town that will be the home of learning and wisdom. All exit, as the chorus sings of the foundation of the city, ‘Whose walls shall be as light to the eyes/A strength for the free, and a rest to the wise.’
Episode II. The Millenary, AD 912. Oxford’s First Appearance in History
The scene opens with the entrance of Ethelfleda, in mourning for her husband Ethelred, followed by her daughter Elfwyn and attendant ladies. At the other side of the scene the Bishop of Dorchester-on-Thames, Wynsige, enters with the Port-Reeve of Oxford and a group of thegns and burghers. Ethelfleda says goodbye to her loyal warriors and thegns, and asks Wynsige for his blessing and strength, which he gives. Trumpets are heard and King Edward the Elder enters, with councillors and thegns, bearing the banner of Wessex. He greets his sister and niece, and pays tribute to his dead brother-in-law. Ethelfleda replies bitterly, telling the King he can have his wish for her realm, and offering up her husband’s sword and the keys, saying ‘These keys, the symbols of the Mercian burgs, London and Worcester, Gloucester, Hereford, And Oxford—last not least in my esteem, the newest built of all my fortresses.’ The King replies that he means not to take all her lands, and gives her back the sword, telling her to take all the power in the Severn’s vale, and then the keys for Gloucester, Worcester, and Hereford. He explains that he must keep London and Oxford as it is the border from the invading Danish. She assents, in the name of England’s need, and addresses the townsmen of Oxford, telling them to show the same loyalty to the King as they did to her. The King expresses his pleasure and admiration for Oxford; the Port Reeve declares that Oxford is now English, not Mercian. Wynsige blesses the action, declaring that they could now ‘trace our England’s union from the pact/Made before Oxford on this happy day.’ Both parties leave, chanting a war-psalm in Latin.
Episode III. The Bridal of Robert D’Oilli, C. AD 1074.
This episode details the marriage of Robert D’Oilli, builder of the castle and one of the first Normans to marry an English wife and settle on English soil. The scene opens in a meadow with a group of citizens singing Vulg. Ps. XLIV, 11, 17. Abbot Ethelhelm of Abingdon enters with his retinue, as does Robert D’Oilli and his brothers Nigel and Gilbert. Roger D’Ivry enters and tells Robert of the approach of Ealdgitha’s father, Wigod. Robert also has a note from Ealdgitha, which warns him that he must make a choice (seemingly between Normandy and England). D’Ivry states that Wigod wants the marriage to ensure he keeps his land, while William the Conqueror wants to keep the peace — though D’Oilli replies that he is doing it for love. Wigod’s barge approaches. The Abbot steps forward and interposes ‘somewhat pompously’ to hail the arrival of Ealdgitha. D’Oilli roughly interrupts and welcomes Ealdgitha, who tells of her fear of the ‘politic spiders spin[ning] their webs’. As Wigod and the Abbot both attempt to parlay, Ealdgitha interrupts and declares her love for the Norman, and how ‘women too may bleed for England!’ King William now approaches with Wigod’s son, Tokig. William and Wigod express their approval for the marriage, before William asks Ealdgitha if she loves Normandy. She replies, ‘No, never, Duke!’ bringing an exclamation of ‘Daughter!’ from Wigod. She explains that while Tokig would die for William, she in fact hates him, but loves D’Oilli. William laughs, and proclaims that the marriage will be the healing of the realm. They are then led to the Church, as a Bridal Song is heard.
Episode IV. Henry II and Fair Rosamund: Richard Coeur de Lion: The Great Charter of Oxford
The scene opens with Rosamund Clifford standing alone by a river bank, slowly dropping flowers into the water. She tells the memories that they represent—of songs, kisses, and wounds—and laments her farewell. Henry II and Thomas Becket enter. Henry calls to Rosamund, expressing his love. She replies that it is ‘farewell for ever’, since their secret ‘nest in the leaves’ had been discovered, leading to her shaming. Henry blames the Queen, and vows revenge, as Rosamund expresses her plan to go to the nunnery—to which Becket expresses his approval. At this point the Mayor and citizens of Oxford approach, come to claim the charter of their rights. Rosamund bids farewell and leaves. Henry’s young son, Richard, approaches, and takes a dagger from his father’s belt. The Mayor bends his knee to the King, who in turns expresses his affection for Oxford and its charms, describing Richard as ‘Oxford’s child’. He then reaffirms their liberties and contracts, for which the Mayor thanks him, before moving away with the citizens. Becket tells the King to look across the bank—where Rosamond waves a final farewell before leaving through the trees. The King reaffirms his desire for revenge on the Queen.
Episode V. The Provisions of Oxford, AD 1258
This episode details the assembling of King Henry III’s barons, headed by Simon de Montfort, at Oxford, to force the feckless spendthrift King to submit to constitutional checks and the terms of Magna Carta. The scene opens at the entrance of the Schools, with two lecturers (one Dominican and one Franciscan), arguing about their opposing philosophical doctrines. Following a flourish of trumpets the King and royal procession enter, along with de Montfort and other Barons. The Chancellor approaches and begins to speak in Latin, to the King’s distaste—who interrupts him and bids him to stop. The Mayor and Aldermen of Oxford then enter, the Mayor proclaiming a verbose speech welcoming the King and telling of the tyranny of the scholars. The King again interrupts, saying that ‘All this is well said. Yet is life but short and we have business in hand.’ At this point a Jew enters, running to the king, calling for justice, explaining that he is ‘A poor man, your Majesty: a very poor man that lendeth—that provideth for the needy moneys at no more than twenty—I should say at no more than five – per centum, and cannot be repaid!’. The Mayor explains: ‘And for what he saith, Credat Judeaus Apollo, as Virgil the magician hath writ: which is to say, Believe a Jew and believe Apollyon. The King tells the Jew to take his matter to the courts, and hales him away. The provisions document is then brought forward, which the King reluctantly signs, before De Montfort reads out its clauses to the cheering townsmen and Barons. The King declares that their will may bring them trouble one day. After a flourish of trumpets and the Royal procession leaves, the Dominican and Franciscan teachers re-enter and begin arguing again.
Episode VI. Edward IV and the Mayor of Oxford, AD 1461.
This episode details the giving to the Mayor of a ‘high and special favour’ as gratitude for the loyal manner in which towns of the south had supported the Yorkist cause during the campaign of Towton, where he won his crown. The scene is a table set out as for a banquet, as the cook and servitors bicker about the laying of the table and make rude jokes about the King’s ‘doited old pate’. The Mayor and Town Council enter; the Mayor boldly describes the strength of the merry men of the south in the former war. King Edward, and the Earls of Warwick, Gloucester and Clarence enter. The Mayor greets them humbly, before reading out a proclamation of thanks and loyalty on behalf of the city. The King accepts, telling how it pleases him greatly. Various matters are brought to the King, who reacts with kindness and humility. The feast begins, and the Mayor takes the cup and pours the wine, kneeling to offer it to the King. The King drinks to ‘the health and wealth, the name and fame, of my loyal town of Oxford. May her men be always true and her women fair; may her harvest be of the river, and, as the river, never fail.’ The King and Lords drink, before the King exhorts the Mayor to keep the cup and drink from it too, and to be his cup-bearer in the future. Hugh Neville then recites a poem about Edward’s victories. The King expresses his approval, before all retire.
Epilogue. The Lady of the City Beautiful Speaks
The lady tells of the making of heaven and earth, and the settling and blossoming of the country. She then describes the battles upon the land, before the emergence of the city. She describes its music that emanates from the church belfry, and the holy chanting of the parapets. The pageant ends with ‘Tom Speaketh’, a poem from the bell-tower ‘Tom’ over the main entrance of Christ Church, the loudest in the city. Tom declares that ‘Strength, Truth, Beauty at one Make a music that death has none. Thou till thine hours be done, Make music—and live, O son.’
Key historical figures mentioned
- Frithuswith [St Frithuswith, Frideswide] (d. 727) abbess of Oxford
- Æthelflæd [Ethelfleda] (d. 918) ruler of the Mercians
- Edward [called Edward the Elder] (870s?-924) king of the Anglo-Saxons
- William I [known as William the Conqueror] (1027/8-1087) king of England and duke of Normandy
- D’Oilly, Robert (d. 1092) landowner and administrator
- Henry II (1133-1189) king of England, duke of Normandy and of Aquitaine, and count of Anjou
- Clifford, Rosamund [called Fair Rosamund] (b. before 1140?, d. 1175/6) royal mistress
- Becket, Thomas [St Thomas of Canterbury, Thomas of London] (1120?-1170) archbishop of Canterbury
- Richard I [called Richard Coeur de Lion, Richard the Lionheart] (1157-1199) king of England, duke of Normandy and of Aquitaine, and count of Anjou
- Henry III (1207-1272) king of England and lord of Ireland, and duke of Aquitaine
- Montfort, Simon de, eighth earl of Leicester (c.1208-1265) magnate and political reformer
- Edward IV (1442-1483) king of England and lord of Ireland
- Neville, Richard, sixteenth earl of Warwick and sixth earl of Salisbury [called the Kingmaker] (1428-1471) magnate
Newspaper coverage of pageantThe Times
Times of India
New York Times
Exeter and Plymouth Gazette
Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer
Book of words
- Book of Words of the Historical Episodes Presented at the Celebration of the Millenary of the City of Oxford, July 11, 1912. Oxford, 1912.
Other primary published materials
- Oxford City Millenary Exhibition 1912: Catalogue of a Loan Collection of Antiquities, Pictures, Books, Manuscripts, Etc. Illustrating the History and Topography of the City of Oxford. Oxford, 1912.
- Rait, Robert S. Oxford Millenary, 912-1912: Lectures. Oxford, 1912.
References in secondary literature
Archival holdings connected to pageant
- Bodleian Library, University of Oxford. ‘Correspondence, notes, and an annotated and illustrated catalogue of the Oxford Millenary Exhibition, 1912’. MSS. Top. Oxon. d. 489-509, d. 512-13, e. 384.
Sources used in preparation of pageant
- The Oxford Pageant of 1907 (Episode I and IV repeated from that event).
The Oxford Millenary Pageant was a relatively small event, staged to coincide with and illustrate the wider celebrations of this anniversary. Its Pageant Master was William Bridges Adams, a theatre director ‘brought up on Shakespeare, Dickens, and Wagner.’1 At the time of the performance he was only twenty-three years old and, according to the press, ‘probably the youngest pageant-master there has yet been’.2 Regardless of age he had begun to make a name for himself; as well as acting the previous year for the Oxford University Dramatic Society, where he had been an undergraduate, he was already working in professional theatre as an actor, designer, and director, his debut London play being performed in the same year as the Millenary.3 Taking place in the gardens of Worcester College, the pageant was actually dominated by its engagement with the history of the city rather than the University. Generic in its narrative and staging, but seemingly well-attended, it nonetheless received some attention in the national press, albeit negative.
Holding a millenary celebration in 1912 was perhaps tenuous since, in 912, the town had clearly already existed for some time. Instead of representing the origin of the town, or its founding, 912 was merely the date of its first recorded instance as a county town—an ‘arbitrary’ decision, according to the Times.4 The Manchester Guardian held similar beliefs, describing the commemoration as ‘not the birth of a city nor any vital or essential incident in its development, but an accidental result of previous achievements.’5 R.S. Rait, a historian and fellow of New College, explained the committee’s reasoning during his delivery of an inaugural lecture at a town meeting held to convene the programme for the commemoration. While he accepted that the town was much older, he argued that:
It was the English revival under Alfred the Great that was about to be celebrated. Oxford’s great heroes were Alfred’s son, King Edward, and his sister Ethelflaed of Mercia. Ethelflaed’s husband, Ethelred, died in the year 912, and the Anglo-Saxon chronicler tells that Edward took possession of Oxford and of all lands that owed obedience thereto. What King Edward took possession of was, in all probability, a fortified town to which the inhabitants of a wide neighbourhood looked for protection and defence. The year 912 was therefore the beginning of the real history of Oxford; for a thousand years there had been a county of Oxford, and the city had been its county town.6
If the date was tenuous, the logic, at least, imitated the revival of interest in Alfred following the thousandth anniversary in 1901 of his death, which was celebrated in 1901.7 Centred in Winchester, the Alfred Millenary had garnered great press coverage, reflecting and also giving strength to a surge of interest in the past.8 It is possible that the Oxford Millenary hoped to draw upon the same enthusiasm for celebrations connected to Alfred. The Millenary Pageant was the third Pageant since 1907, the year of the Oxford Historical Pageant, and the Oxford Pageant of English Literature held in 1911.
While university representatives were involved in the organisation, and the celebration took place in the gardens of the Worcester College, the Millenary heavily leant towards the town and its government rather than the University for its subject matter. As the Vice-Chancellor proposed during a vote of thanks to the mayor during the town meeting, ‘the University as such could claim no part, but nevertheless the University would co-operate most heartily with the city.’9 While the Times stated that ‘good feeling between the city and the University’ had ‘characterised the whole of the proceedings’, with a ‘harmony of Town and Gown which has not always existed’, at other times commentators were quick to notice the imbalance.10 As the Manchester Courier noted in the months leading up to the celebration, the episodes of the pageant, such as the handing of the keys of Oxford from Ethelfleda to Edward the Elder, ‘would appear [to show] that it is the town, and not the University, which is to be glorified.’11 This was also reflected in the associated lecture series, which dealt predominately with the town history, the University only entering as a subject as part of its relationship to wider Oxford. Indeed, according to the Manchester Guardian, the town took ‘a friendly and subtle revenge upon the University’ with ‘University history, University relics, and all things connected with the University… banished both from the admirably arranged exhibition… and from the six dramatic episodes of the Pageant.’12 On the one occasion the University did feature in the pageant, it was lightly mocked rather than revered—when two lecturers, one Dominican and one Franciscan, bickered about their opposing philosophies, and the King expressed his displeasure at the Chancellor speaking in Latin.
As it was, the narrative of the episodes set out to mainly show the importance of the city through time —a ‘thousand years of glorious history’, as Thames proclaimed in the prologue, forming the basis for ‘another thousand years.’ The second episode, ‘The Millenary 912’, set the city firmly in the national life, when the Edward the Elder took Oxford from his sister, Ethelfleda, and thus declared Oxford as English instead of Mercian. This was the key point of the pageant and indeed the wider celebration; as the Bishop of Dorchester-on-Thames declares, in blessing the King’s action, they could now ‘trace our England’s union from the pact Made before Oxford on this happy day.’ The following episode, detailing the marriage of Robert D’Oilli, a Norman, and Ealdgitha of Wallingford, a Saxon, was positioned as an act that healed the rifts in the realm. Robert, as High Sheriff of Oxford and builder of the Castle, again tied the country to the city. Episode IV further cemented the ties between royalty and the independence of the city, as King Henry II grants its charter of rights, while expressing his affection for the place —describing his son Richard as ‘Oxford’s child’. Episode V, in which Henry III is forced at Oxford to submit to the checks of Magna Carta, and Episode VI, in which Edward IV makes the Mayor of Oxford his cupbearer, again make it clear the importance the city and its civic figures had to national changes and royal figures.
According to the Times it was only in modern times that the city had ‘recovered its independence and an importance of its own’ after five-hundred years of University dominance—though not all for the better, since it was ‘now for the most part surrounded by suburbs, squalid or vainly pretentious’.13 Yet if the University was underrepresented, going forward it was through the working together of the town and University that ‘the true spirit of Oxford’ could be preserved and expressed ‘in new forms of beauty.’14 During the speeches given as part of the civic luncheon on the first day of the celebration, these sentiments were echoed by the Vice-Chancellor who ‘dwelt upon the good feeling now existing between “Town” and “Gown” and alluded to the work done with this aim by Thomas Hill Green and many other members of the University.’15 It is likely that the Vice Chancellor was referring here to Green’s theoretical and practical contribution to idealist philosophy, epitomised by the expansion of the role of government in safeguarding liberty, coupled with an ethos of public service and watchful civic responsibility—exemplified by his own tenure as a city councillor.16 Green was successful in promoting these ideals to the students of Balliol College, where he taught over 90% of Balliol undergraduates, many of whom, enthused with his ideals, entered public service at the local, national or colonial level in the 75 years before 1914.17 This relationship between the burgeoning municipal spirit and the harmonious relationship between ‘Town and Gown’ was elaborated upon by Henry W. Taunt in The Millenary of Oxford: It’s Story for a Thousand Years, published in the same year as the Millenary, which described the modernisation of city government and the progress the city had made as the two institutions worked side by side.18
As was common, especially with commemorative pageants, the survival of the past into the present, whether in ethos or materiality, was seen as instructive for the present and future. According to Sir William Anson in his short speech at the civic luncheon, paraphrased by The Times of India, ‘a past of 1000 years which still left a community living and prepared for the future was a cause for pride.’ The Mayor further elaborated, professing a strong attachment to the city and its noble history.19 It seems odd, then, that there was little support for a long-lasting, or at least visible, memory of the celebration in the city. While there were some proposals for a permanent memorial, this was not ‘favourably received by some sections of the public’.20 According to the Manchester Courier this was a blessing, arguing that ‘Oxford architecture will not lightly brook innovations, and we frankly distrust the taste of the present age in such matters as the grafting of the new on the old.’21 Indeed, press coverage of the pageant in general was mixed, at best. The Manchester Guardian in particular published a scathing review, criticising almost all aspects of the staging and story, including the lack of audibility, the reuse of episodes I and IV (what they considered to be ‘not the most effective in the earlier  Pageant’), and the ‘frigid’ choice of the cupbearer scene as the climax. They concluded that the ‘effects were seldom unpleasing, except that dullness is unpleasing’ and that ‘The very large concourse of people assembled yesterday, filling every seat in the great auditorium… must frequently have asked themselves between the hours of 5 and 6.30 what they had come out to see.’22 The Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer was kinder, stating, somewhat vaguely, that ‘the whole of the varied and interesting items in the programme were carried out with complete success.’23
While it was a fairly generic pageant, the primary story being the connection between locality and nation, and the importance of commemorating a period of successful history with the wish of promoting the same into the future, there were some moments of interest. In the third episode, for example, the strong and fiery character of Ealdgitha proclaimed that ‘So women too May bleed for England!’ a strange outburst that perhaps reflected contemporary debates about suffrage. More distasteful was an incident in the fifth episode, when a stereotypical unscrupulous Jewish money-lender is ordered away by the King and thrown into the ducking pond. The Manchester Guardian described this as ‘rather forced light comedy relief’.24 Overall, however, the pageant was fairly standard for this period. If anything, its interest was in the way that it was considered as part of a range of events and exhibitions rather than the main attraction in itself—a use of pageantry that was to become more common with the charter and jubilee celebrations later in the century.
- Robert Speaight, ‘Adams, William Bridges (1889–1965)’, in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, rev. Stanley Wells (Oxford 2004), accessed 4 March 2014, http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/32068.
- ‘Oxford Millenary,’ The Times of India, 27 July 1912, 11.
- ‘Oxford Millenary,’ The Times of India, 27 July 1912, 11. Speaight, ‘Adams, William Bridges’.
- ‘Oxford’, The Times, 12 July 1912, 7.
- ‘The Oxford Millenary Celebrations’, Manchester Guardian, 11 July 1912, 10.
- ‘The Millenary of Oxford’, The Times, 27 April 1912, 8.
- In error, as it turned out; Alfred is now known to have died in 899.
- Paul Readman, ‘The Place of the Past in English Culture c.1890-1914’, Past and Present, 186 (2005), 151-155.
- ‘The Millenary of Oxford’, 8.
- ‘The Millenary of Oxford’, The Times, 11 July 1912, 9; ‘Oxford’, 7.
- [no title], The Manchester Courier, 8 March 1912, 6.
- ‘The Oxford Millenary Celebrations’, 10.
- ‘Oxford’, 7.
- ‘Oxford’, 7.
- ‘Oxford Millenary’, 11.
- See T.H. Green, ‘Liberal Legislation and Freedom of Contract’ in T.H. Green, Lectures on the Principles of Political Obligation and Other Writings, ed. Paul Harris and John Morrow (Cambridge, 1986), 194-212. Avital Simhony, ‘T.H. Green: the Common Good Society’, History of Political Thought, 14, no. 2 (1993), 225-247; and Denys Leighton, The Greenian Moment: T.H. Green, Religion and Political Argument in Victorian Britain (Exeter, 2004).
- Raymond Plant, ‘T.H. Green: Citizenship, Education and the Law’, Oxford Review of Education, 32, no. 1 (2006): 23.
- Henry W. Taunt, The Millenary of Oxford: It’s Story for a Thousand Years (Oxford, 1912), 6.
- ‘Oxford Millenary’, 11.
- ‘The Millenary of Oxford’, The Times, 23 March 1912, 6.
- [no title],The Manchester Courier, 28 March 1912, 6.
- ‘The Oxford Millenary Pageant’, 16.
- ‘The Oxford Millenary Celebrations’, The Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer, 12 July 1912, 6.
- ‘The Oxford Millenary Pageant’, 16.
How to cite this entry
Angela Bartie, Linda Fleming, Mark Freeman, Tom Hulme, Alex Hutton, Paul Readman, ‘The Oxford Millenary Pageant’, The Redress of the Past, http://www.historicalpageants.ac.uk/pageants/1143/